Traffic accidents are the main cause of severe mortality and the 10th leading cause of all fatalities worldwide — now represent a substantial portion of the global ill-health load. According to WHO, there are reported 1.35 million deaths annually due to road traffic accidents.
According to figures reported by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, about 36,600 people died on U.S. roadways in 2018, a 2.4 percent decline from 2017.
Designing infrastructure of roads for public safety
Road networks are built from the viewpoint of users of motor vehicles in almost every region. Yet emerging countries should draw lessons from health-conscious road planning in countries like the Netherlands and Denmark, where roads are designed to match their purpose (high speed, industrial, intermediate between high speed and industrial and residential), and the protection of pedestrians and cyclists are taken into account. In Denmark introduction of segregated cycle lanes alongside urban roads has reduced cyclists’ deaths significantly.
There are many suggestions and implementation of road safety procedures, but one effective and cheap measure is using bollards.
A safety bollard is a short post used to avoid traffic entering any location. Bollards can regulate the amount of traffic approaching a place or region by limiting movements, or monitor traffic volume by reducing the usable space. Studies have shown that adding bollards to regulate traffic at highway exits will also aid in mitigating collisions.
How do bollards reduce accidents?
There are two categories of bollards. One is impact resistant, and the other is non-impact resistant. The impact-resistant bollards are there to stop the moving vehicle and serve a for one-time purpose only as it should be replaced, as it would get bent and damaged after the truck or car crashed into it. There are various types of bollards in this category as it depends on the equality and place you have in mind. It serves the major purpose of pedestrian safety and is used by US government itself.
The other category is non-impact resistant. These bollards are used for alarming the driver, as there maybe pedestrians walking or road work ahead. The bright colors and good height allow bollards to alert the driver incoming and can reduce major accidents happening. These flexible bollards are intended to fold back under impact, ensuring no harm to either the car or the bollard. It is ideal for high-traffic areas with a reduced speed limit, but not really successful in shielding people from fast-moving cars that are out of reach. Like for other protection strategies for traffic, it’s all about venue.
There are various types of bollards also, that are being used in many countries including US. The type differs according to the purpose or location that it is used for.
Embedded bollards are essentially bollards that are embedded inside the earth. Typically, that’s for added strength and protection. Embedded bollards may be constructed of any traditional bollard material, whether it be steel, concrete or even wood, but the bollard can only be as solid as the foundation under which it is embedded. A steel pole packed with concrete and buried very deep inside a reinforced concrete foundation will indeed be solid. On the opposite, not as much defense would be offered by a wooden post covered in loose sand or gravel.
Not all bollard installations are meant to be permanent, or block entry at all times. As such, retractable and removable bollards were designed to allow access to the area normally denied by the bollard by the owner or a potential traveler. These accesses are allowed for a day or two. They have low costs and low installation costs too.
MOUNT ON THE SURFACE
To fix the bollard to the roof, this form of bollard requires some sort of anchor mechanism, normally mechanical. While this is an inexpensive installation process, it is also not a really safe system. The anchors are always the weakest connection at impact and easily giving up, leaving a tipped bollard and broken foundations
Rebounding bollards, a relative novice to the bollard market, use energy absorption technology to provide the power of certain embedded bollards, with low construction costs and durability of surface-mounted bollards. It has a spring system that absorbs the impact and dissipates the energy.